GM crops in developing countries - Questions about GM crops in developing countries

Download a PDF of Chapter 4 - Questions relating to the use of GM crops in developing countries (190KB)

We consider a number of questions that are frequently asked about the introduction of GM crops in developing countries:

In view of the amount of food available worldwide, are GM crops really necessary?

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GM Crops - Terms of reference

1 To briefly review the developments on the genetic modification of crops and their impact on human food consumption and the environment.

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Patenting DNA - Uses for DNA sequences

We distinguish four different uses to which DNA sequences can be put:

  • diagnostic tests based on genes

  • research tools

  • gene therapy

  • production of therapeutic proteins

We note that patents that assert rights over DNA sequences and their uses are, in some cases, supportable, but in others, should be treated with great caution.

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Patenting DNA - Key findings

The remarkable development and application of new genetic technologies over the past 25 years has been accompanied by profound changes in the way in which research is commercialised in the life sciences. Many thousands of patents which assert rights over DNA sequences have been granted to researchers across the public and private sector.

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Patenting DNA - Chapter downloads

You can download the individual chapters of this report using the links below. (All files are PDFs and less than 1.4MB).

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Chapter 2 - The patent system

Chapter 3 - Patenting DNA

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Mental disorders - Chapter downloads

You can download the individual chapters of this report using the links below. (All files are PDFs and less than 150KB).

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Chapter 2 - Definition and study of mental disorders

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Mental disorders - Key findings

This report examines the ethical issues that may arise in the course of genetic research into mental disorders and in the application of that research in clinical and other settings. Some of these issues arise because the conditions are genetic, and others because they relate to mental disorders.

A broad and humanistic perspective may be considered to have two basic ethical requirements: respect for human beings and human dignity, and the limitation of harm to, and suffering of, all human beings.

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Mental disorders - External consultation

A public consultation was launched in February 1997. More than 100 responses were received from a wide variety of organisations and individuals. Respondents included:

  • individual clinicians and scientists

  • other academics and individuals

  • charities and other organisations

  • mental health user groups, learned and professional organisations and regulatory bodies

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