Medical implants

Policy Briefing

Published 19/06/2019

Medical implants cover
X ray pacemaker 596x330

This briefing note highlights the ethical issues raised by the use of medical implants – such as hip implants, pacemakers and glucose monitors – and the challenges faced by regulatory bodies, manufacturers, and healthcare professionals working in this area. These challenges include ensuring effective post-market surveillance of implants to monitor their safety and efficacy, and preparing for data and cybersecurity risks associated with connected implants.


  • Medical implants can be used to treat or monitor health conditions, or to restore body function.
  • High-profile cases involving failing implants causing harm to patients have triggered a review of regulation to strengthen evidence and safety requirements for implants.
  • Ethical issues arise in relation to equitable patient access to implants, the responsibilities of healthcare professionals in offering and monitoring medical implants, uncertainty about the long-term effects of implants and the problems this can pose for decision making, and liability when something goes wrong.
  • Increasingly, implants are network-enabled, which expands possibilities for data gathering, monitoring, and analysis. This also might make implants more vulnerable to error and attack.
  • Challenges for policy-makers include ensuring effective post-market surveillance of implants, promoting innovation that addresses patient need, and preparing for data and cybersecurity risks associated with connected implants.

Read the briefing note.

Project team


Ran Svenning Berg

Research and Policy Manager

Ranveig joined the NCOB in 2012 and leads the research and policy work in our Reproduction, Parenthood and Families priority area.

She has previously held communications and researcher roles at the NCOB, managing short projects on topics including surrogacy law reform, vaccine uptake and access, medical implants, experimental treatments, and AI in healthcare and research. Before that, Ranveig worked in communications for charities focussed on gun violence prevention and human rights.