The UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics is today calling for people’s views on the potential of new types of biofuels, such as fuel produced by algae, to provide us with a greener source of renewable energy. First generation biofuels are produced mainly from food crops such as sugar cane, soy bean and wheat. But in some cases their net greenhouse gas emissions are not much better than those of fossil fuels and there have been concerns about their impact on the environment, food availability, and farmers and communities in developing countries. “Research into new types of biofuels is looking more promising,” said Professor Joyce Tait, Chair of the Council’s Working Party on biofuels. “Rather than using food crops to produce biofuels, in the future we may be able to use algae, trees, the inedible ‘woody’ parts of plants, and agricultural waste. In addition, scientists are working to increase the yield of biofuel crops and improve the production process, in order to maximise the energy output of land and reduce net greenhouse gas emissions.” “But before these new types of biofuels are brought into wider use, we are considering their potential to meet our energy needs, support economic development and, along with changes in lifestyle, help address climate change in an ethical and sustainable way. We need to think early about how we can avoid the problems of first generation biofuels,” said Professor Tait. The Council will consider how the policies of governments and international organisations affect biofuel production and research. “A new legally-binding agreement was not reached in Copenhagen but there are a wide range of existing national and international policies that influence biofuels, such as greenhouse gas emission targets, subsidies, research funding and trade agreements,” said Professor Tait. “Industry investment also has a major impact on the direction of biofuel development, but the changeable nature of biofuel governance has created a lack of investor confidence.“ “We also want to find out how consumers feel about moving towards a greater use of biofuels. People’s attitudes will have a major impact on whether biofuels can successfully become part of the ‘energy mix’.” The amount of land in developing countries used for biofuel production has increased over the past few years. Problems have arisen such as the displacement of local communities, poor conditions for workers, and environmental pollution. For example, large-scale palm oil production in Indonesia has led to conflicts with local communities over land rights. “We want to ensure that the ethical dimension is taken into account. We want to see that the production of new types of biofuels, especially in developing counties, has a positive effect on local communities and supports economic development by creating jobs and new sources of income,” said Professor Tait. “We want to hear people’s views on how we can best promote, provide incentives for, and regulate new types of biofuels in ways that are both ethical and sustainable, and we will use our findings to advise policy makers.” The Council would like to hear from anyone with a personal or professional interest in biofuels, both from developing and developed countries. The deadline for responses is 15th March 2010. The Council’s Working Party on biofuels includes members with expertise in science, the environment, ethics, law, policy, economics, the commercial sector, energy security, and sustainable and international development. In addition to gathering views during the public consultation, the group will talk to experts from developed and developing countries. Contributions will be carefully considered, and a report setting out the Council’s findings will be published in winter 2010/11.

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1. Contact For media inquiries contact: Catherine Joynson Communications Manager Nuffield Council on Bioethics 28 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3JS Tel: +44 (0)20 7681 9619 Mob: +44(0)7747 635863 Email: 2. Consultation People are invited to respond the consultation via the Council’s consultation website: https: // The website includes background information and some questions for consideration. Advance copies of the text are available to journalists on request. Alternatively, people can return their comments by email or in writing, to: Varsha Jagadesham Nuffield Council on Bioethics 28 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3JS UK Fax: +44 (0)20 7323 6203 Telephone: +44 (0)20 7681 9619 Email: The deadline for responses is 15th March 2010. 2. Background The Nuffield Council on Bioethics examines ethical issues raised by new developments in biology and medicine. Established by the Nuffield Foundation in 1991, the Council is an independent body, funded jointly by the Foundation, the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust. The Council has achieved an international reputation for addressing public concerns, and providing independent advice to assist policy makers and stimulate debate in bioethics. For further information see About us 3. Members of the Working Party The members of the Working Party were appointed for their personal knowledge and expertise, and will not necessarily be representing the views of their organisations. Professor Joyce Tait CBE FRSE FSRA (Chair) Scientific Adviser to the Innogen Centre (ESRC Centre for Social and Economic Research on Innovation in Genomics), Edinburgh University Dr Mike Adcock Director, Master of Laws (LLM) Programme, Durham University Dr Guy C Barker Director, Genomics Resource Centre, Warwick HRI, University of Warwick Professor Simon Caney Professor in Political Theory, Magdalen College, University of Oxford Professor Joanna Chataway Professor of Biotechnology and Development, The Open University Professor Robin Gill Michael Ramsey Professor of Modern Theology, University of Kent Professor Jon Hutton Director, United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) Professor Ottoline Leyser CBE FRS Professor of Plant Developmental Genetics and Chair of the Biology Department Research Committee, University of York Dr Nigel Mortimer Director, North Energy Associates Ltd, Sheffield Professor Christine Raines Professor in Plant Biology, University of Essex Mr Ian Smale Head of Strategy and Policy, BP Dr Jim Watson Director, Sussex Energy Group, Science and Technology Policy Research Unit (SPRU), University of Sussex; and Deputy Leader, Climate Change and Energy Programme, The Tyndall Centre